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Sunday, 22 December 2013

Creepy Pasta : The Russian Sleep Experiment

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CREEPYPASTA : THE RUSSIAN SLEEP EXPERIMENT

What's a creepypasta? 

Creepypasta are essentially internet horror stories, passed around on forums and other sites to disturb and frighten readers. The name "Creepypasta" comes from the word "copypasta", an internet slang term for a block of text that gets copied and pasted over and over again from website to website. Creepypastas are sometimes supplemented with pictures, audio and/or video footage related to the story, typically with gory, distorted, or otherwise shocking content.


Why am I posting this?
This is a very interesting creepypasta with a good moral at the end. Its one of my favorites. As they say,"There is no limit to human greed." 

WARNING : Its very long.

 


Russian researchers in the late 1940s kept five people awake for fifteen days using an experimental gas based stimulant. They were kept in a sealed environment to carefully monitor their oxygen intake so the gas didn't kill them, since it was toxic in high concentrations. This was before closed circuit cameras so they had only microphones and 5 inch thick glass porthole sized windows into the chamber to monitor them. The chamber was stocked with books, cots to sleep on but no bedding, running water and toilet, and enough dried food to last all five for over a month. The test subjects were political prisoners deemed enemies of the
state during World War II. Everything was fine for the first five days; the subjects hardly complained having been promised (falsely) that they would be freed if they submitted to the test and did not sleep for 30
days. Their conversations and activities were monitored and it was noted that they continued to talk
about increasingly traumatic incidents in their past, and the general tone of their conversations took on a darker aspect after the 4 day mark. After five days they started to complain about the circumstances and events that lead them to where they were and started to demonstrate severe paranoia. They stopped talking
to each other and began alternately whispering to the microphones and one way mirrored portholes. Oddly
they all seemed to think they could win the trust of the experimenters by turning over their comrades, the
other subjects in captivity with them. At first the researchers suspected this was an effect of the gas itself...
After nine days the first of them started screaming. He ran the length of the chamber repeatedly yelling at
the top of his lungs for 3 hours straight, he continued attempting to scream but was only able to produce
occasional squeaks. The researchers postulated that he had physically torn his vocal cords. The most
surprising thing about this behavior is how the other captives reacted to it... or rather didn't react to it. They continued whispering to the microphones until the second of the captives started to scream. The 2
non-screaming captives took the books apart, smeared page after page with their own feces and pasted them calmly over the glass portholes. The screaming promptly stopped. So did the whispering to the
microphones. After 3 more days passed. The researchers checked the microphones hourly to make sure they were working, since they thought it impossible that no sound could be coming with 5 people inside. The
oxygen consumption in the chamber indicated that all 5 must still be alive. In fact it was the amount of
oxygen 5 people would consume at a very heavy level of strenuous exercise. On the morning of the 14th day the researchers did something they said they would not do to get a reaction from the captives, they used the
intercom inside the chamber, hoping to provoke any response from the captives they were afraid were either
dead or vegetables. They announced: "We are opening the chamber to test the microphones step away from the door and lie flat on the floor or you will be shot. Compliance will earn one of you your immediate freedom." To their surprise they heard a single phrase in a calm voice response: "We no longer want to be freed."

Debate broke out among the researchers and the military forces funding the research. Unable to provoke any more response using the intercom it was finally decided to open the chamber at midnight on the fifteenth day.
The chamber was flushed of the stimulant gas and filled with fresh air and immediately voices from the
microphones began to object. 3 different voices began begging, as if pleading for the life of loved ones to
turn the gas back on. The chamber was opened and soldiers sent in to retrieve the test subjects. They began
to scream louder than ever, and so did the soldiers when they saw what was inside. Four of the five subjects were still alive, although no one could rightly call the state that any of them in 'life.'

The food rations past day 5 had not been so much as touched. There were chunks of meat from the dead test subject's thighs and chest stuffed into the drain in the center of the chamber, blocking the drain and
allowing 4 inches of water to accumulate on the floor. Precisely how much of the water on the floor
was actually blood was never determined. All four 'surviving' test subjects also had large portions of
muscle and skin torn away from their bodies. The destruction of flesh and exposed bone on their finger tips
indicated that the wounds were inflicted by hand, not with teeth as the researchers initially thought.
Closer examination of the position and angles of the wounds indicated that most if not all of them were self-
inflicted. The abdominal organs below the ribcage of all four test subjects had been removed. While the heart, lungs and diaphragm remained in place, the skin and most of the muscles attached to the ribs had been ripped off, exposing the lungs through the ribcage. All the blood vessels and organs remained intact, they had just been taken out and laid on the floor, fanning out around the eviscerated but still living bodies of the subjects. The digestive tract of all four could be seen to be working, digesting food. It quickly became apparent that what they were digesting was their own flesh that they had ripped off and
eaten over the course of days.

Most of the soldiers were Russian special operatives at the facility, but still many refused to return to the chamber to remove the test subjects. They continued to scream to be left in the chamber and alternately
begged and demanded that the gas be turned back on, lest they fall asleep...

To everyone's surprise the test subjects put up a fierce fight in the process of being removed from the
chamber. One of the Russian soldiers died from having his throat ripped out, another was gravely injured by
having his testicles ripped off and an artery in his leg severed by one of the subject's teeth. Another 5 of the
soldiers lost their lives if you count ones that committed suicide in the weeks following the incident.
In the struggle one of the four living subjects had his spleen ruptured and he bled out almost immediately. The
medical researchers attempted to sedate him but this proved impossible. He was injected with more than ten times the human dose of a morphine derivative and still fought like a cornered animal, breaking the ribs and arm of one doctor. When heart was seen to beat for a full two minutes after he had bled out to the point there was more air in his vascular system than blood. Even after it stopped he continued to scream and flail for another 3 minutes, struggling to attack anyone in reach and just repeating the word "MORE" over and over, weaker and weaker, until he finally fell silent. The surviving three test subjects were heavily restrained and moved to a medical facility, the two with intact vocal cords continuously begging for the gas demanding to be kept awake...

The most injured of the three was taken to the only surgical operating room that the facility had. In the
process of preparing the subject to have his organs placed back within his body it was found that he was effectively immune to the sedative they had given him to prepare him for the surgery. He fought furiously against his restraints when the anesthetic gas was brought out to put him under. He managed to tear most of the way through a 4 inch wide leather strap on one wrist, even through the weight of a 200 pound soldier holding that wrist as well. It took only a little more anesthetic than normal to put him under, and the instant his eyelids fluttered and closed, his heart stopped. In the autopsy of the test subject that died on the operating table it was found that his blood had triple the normal level of oxygen. His muscles that were still attached to his skeleton were badly torn and he had broken 9 bones in his struggle to not be subdued. Most of them were from the force his own muscles had exerted on them. The second survivor had been the first of the group of five to start screaming. His vocal cords destroyed he was unable to beg or object to surgery, and he only reacted by shaking his head violently in disapproval when the anesthetic gas was brought near him. He shook his head yes when someone suggested, reluctantly, they try the surgery without anesthetic, and did not react for the entire 6 hour procedure of replacing his abdominal organs and attempting to cover them with what remained of his skin. The surgeon presiding stated repeatedly that it should be medically possible for the patient to still be alive. One terrified nurse assisting the surgery stated that she had seen the patients mouth curl into a smile several times, whenever his eyes met hers. When the surgery ended the subject looked at the surgeon and began to wheeze loudly, attempting to talk while struggling. Assuming this must be something of drastic importance the surgeon had a pen and pad fetched so the patient could write his message. It was simple. "Keep cutting."

The other two test subjects were given the same surgery, both without anesthetic as well. Although they had
to be injected with a paralytic for the duration of the operation. The surgeon found it impossible to
perform the operation while the patients laughed continuously. Once paralyzed the subjects could only follow the attending researchers with their eyes. The paralytic cleared their system in an abnormally short period of time and they were soon trying to escape their bonds. The moment they could speak they were again asking for the stimulant gas. The researchers tried asking why they had injured themselves, why they had ripped out their own guts and why they wanted to be given the gas again. Only one response was given: "I must remain awake."

All three subject's restraints were reinforced and they were placed back into the chamber awaiting determination as to what should be done with them. The researchers, facing the wrath of their military 'benefactors' for having failed the stated goals of their project considered euthanizing the surviving subjects. The commanding officer, an ex-KGB instead saw potential, and wanted to see what would happen if they were put back on the gas. The researchers strongly objected, but were overruled.

In preparation for being sealed in the chamber again the subjects were connected to an EEG monitor and had their restraints padded for long term confinement. To everyone's surprise all three stopped struggling the moment it was let slip that they were going back on the gas. It was obvious that at this point all three were putting up a great struggle to stay awake. One of subjects that could speak was humming loudly and continuously; the mute subject was straining his legs against the leather bonds with all his might, first left, then right, then left again for something to focus on. The remaining subject was holding his head off his pillow and blinking rapidly. Having been the first to be wired for EEG most of the researchers were monitoring his brain waves in surprise. They were normal most of the time but sometimes flat lined inexplicably. It looked as if he were repeatedly suffering brain death, before returning to normal. As they focused on paper scrolling out of the brainwave monitor only one nurse saw his eyes slip shut at the same moment his head hit the pillow. His brainwaves immediately changed to that of deep sleep, then flatlined for the last time as his heart simultaneously stopped. The only remaining subject that could speak started screaming to be sealed in now. His brainwaves showed the same flatlines as one who had just died from falling asleep. The commander gave the order to seal the chamber with both subjects inside, as well as 3 researchers. One of the named three immediately drew his gun and shot the commander point blank between the eyes, then turned the gun on the mute subject and blew his brains out as well. He pointed his gun at the remaining subject, still restrained to a bed as the remaining members of the medical and research team fled the room. "I won't be locked in here with these things! Not with you!" he screamed at the man strapped to the table. "WHAT ARE YOU?" he demanded. "I must know!"

The subject smiled. "Have you forgotten so easily?" The subject asked. "We are you. We are the madness that lurks within you all, begging to be free at every moment in your deepest animal mind. We are what you hide from in your beds every night. We are what you sedate into silence and paralysis when you go to the nocturnal haven where we cannot tread."

 The researcher paused. Then aimed at the subject's heart and fired. The EEG flatlined as the subject weakly choked out, "So... nearly... free..."


So did you guys like it? Comment below if you want some more of it.
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Wednesday, 17 July 2013

TOP 10 : Most Interesting Facts Floating Across The Web

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Hello readers, First of all my apologies, I have been really busy in the past so couldn’t upload much posts.
This post is all about facts that are most popular on the web. Fact lovers may have read some but here I’ve tried to compile the most fresh and interesting ones. Also there may be little information after each fact so that you may not be surrounded by questions later on.
So without further delay, lets start…

10. Morgan Freeman:

Morgan Freeman


Actor Morgan has been nominated for or has won more awards than movies he has been starred in.
Comments: He needs no description. World famous morgan freeman is a very talented actor, film director and narrator. Some of his famous performances are in Street Smart, Driving Miss Daisy, The Shawshank Redemption and Invictus. He won a academy award for his performance in Million Dollar Baby.

9. Albert Einstein:

Einstein and Bee theory


One of the legendary physicists Albert Einstein once remarked,” If honey bees were to disappear from Earth, humans would be dead within 4 years.”
This may be true to an extent as honey bees play a major role in pollination. No or very little pollination means no more plants i.e. plants will get extinct at a very fast pace and as we all know every animal on this earth is directly or indirectly dependent on the plant life. Even if you claim to be pure non-vegetarian then for your information the animals you eat (cocks, hen, pigs, cows etc.) are all dependent on plants so you’re too indirectly dependent on plant life. Now it makes sense, doesn’t it?

8. Bank Robber:

Good Guy Floyd


A bank robber named “Pretty Boy” Floyd was known for destroying mortgage papers on heists, freeing 100s of people from property debts.

Good guy Floyd. Debts are the worst things in life, aren’t they? Its seldom they turn out good for you but most of the times you are surrounded by debts and fall in a debt trap which ultimately leads to more stress and tension further deteriorating health and ultimately leading to a tragic death and sometimes suicide.
Floyd did all this work in 1930s at the time of The Great Depression so according to me he did a good job although your opinion may be different..



7. Money:

US$10 $_$


If you have no debts and US $10 in pocket, you have more wealth than 25% of the Americans. 
As I said above debts are not good really. They not only lead to mental stress but also to emotional and physical stress.

6. Eminem:

Eminem


When “Lose Yourself” won the Academy Award, Eminem was sleeping at that time because he didn’t think he would win.
Let me tell you before you bombard the comment section with “What is an Academy Award?” Its now known as Oscar. Back then its name was “Academy Award” but now we all know what is an Oscar and how does it feel when someone of your country gets an Oscar.
Eminem is again a very talented artist. If we keep aside some of his songs then probably he is the best rapper of all time. Wonderful voice, meaningful lyrics and a song with message that is exactly “Lose Yourself”
*Oh wait! Let me change my song..*

5. Bruce Lee:

Bruce Lee


Bruce Lee was so quick that he could grab a coin out of your hand and replace it with another coin even before you close your fist.
Really I wish I was half as swift as he is, atleast I could finish my assignments on time. He was really that quick sometimes he is referred to as the greatest martial arts artist.


4. Bill Gates:

Bill Gates


Bill Gates scored a near perfect score on his SAT exam 1590/1600 which at that time was referred to as exceptionally intelligent.
Now you know how he managed to be one of the richest in the world all these years. It won’t be wrong if I say he was a prodigy. He literally revolutionized our way of living, the way we work, spend time or play he changed everything.

3. Polar Bear fear in Canada:

See this picture is one of the examples


Residents of Churchill, Canada leave their cars unlocked to offer an escape for pedestrians who might encounter Polar Bears on Main Street.
That is a really good deed. But we can expect more robberies there ;)

2. Titanic:

Titanic survivors on Rescue boat


Titanic survivors were charged US $1 per WORD to send TELEGRAMS from their life boat. One man used his last dollar to send the word “SAFE” to his mother.
Really this fact makes you wonder how harsh and cruel world can get in your bad times.

1. British Soldier:

A scene from World War


A British soldier who fought in both World Wars was shot in the face, head, ankle, leg, hip and ear, survived in a plane crash, tunneled out of a POW(Prisoner of War) camp, and bit off his own fingers when doctor wouldn’t amputate them. He later said,” Frankly I had enjoyed the war.”

I shouldn’t really comment but: HAHAHA! This was ultimate. I laughed at this literally and its perfect example of the saying “Don’t get scared of the hurdles in your life.”
By the way, this guy was extremely lucky(to have survived all this) should have bought a lottery ticket, who knows he could have hit a jackpot lol

This is the end for the week folks. Goodbye and Goodluck. Feel free to enlighten me with your knowledge in the comments. Your opinion is really valuable to me.
Share this post with your friends please! Just takes a couple of seconds. :D


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Tuesday, 11 June 2013

Daniel Radcliffe Annoys Paparazzi, wears same outfit for 6 months

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Harry Potter star Daniel Radcliffe once enjoyed annoying the paparazzi in London - for six months he deliberately wore the same clothes when leaving the theatre so photographs would be worthless.
The 17-year-old was greeted by photographers each night outside the Gielgud Theatre during his stint in controversial West End play Equus, where the teenage actor disrobed onstage every night.
Radcliffe quickly realised newspaper and magazine editors wouldn't publish photos of him wearing the same outfit night after night, because it would look like the pictures were taken on the same day.
He says, "They (the paparazzi) were outside the theatre every single night, but we came up with a cunning ruse.
"I would wear the same outfit every time - a different T-shirt underneath, but I'd wear the
same jacket and zip it up so they couldn't see what I was wearing underneath, and the
same hat. " So they could take pictures for six months, but it would look like the same day, so they (photos) became unpublishable. Which was hilarious, because there's nothing better than seeing paparazzi getting really frustrated."


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Monday, 10 June 2013

Squirrel Terrifies A Neighborhood by stucking head in a Halloween Mask

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A squirrel got its head stuck in a halloween decoration and terrified a whole neighborhood.

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Friday, 10 May 2013

Water Facts

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Water is perhaps the most important thing to life on earth after air. Who could have guessed this fact? 

Have you ever thought how contaminated a glass of water that you drink might be? Well check this fact to know that.



When you drink a glass of water, it has already been drunk by other people and animals, possibly several times over.



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Thursday, 9 May 2013

Adolf Hitler Facts

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Adolf Hitler as we all know was one of the most Brutal Dictators of all time but who could have imagined that this guy entertained himself as well apart from holocast.




Well the fact is Hitler's favorite movies were King Kong And Snow White And The Seven Dwarves. 

Yeah I know that is hard to believe. ;)


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Friday, 26 April 2013

Omar Borkan Al Gala, deported from Saudi for being too handsome

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Meet Omar Borkan Al Gala , the hunk from UAE deported from Saudi Arabia because officers of the country's morality police, fearing for the safety of their women, thought he was too handsome to be allowed to stay.

According to Jezebel, Omar Borkan Al Gala, a Dubai-based actor, photographer and poet, was one of three men from the UAE attending the Jenadriyah Heritage and Cultural Festival in Riyadh as delegates.

Digital Journal reported that he and his colleagues were kicked out Saudi Arabia because they was just too handsome to be allowed to stay and expose modest Saudi Arabian women to unaccustomed carnal temptations.

News that some UAE men were kicked out of the conservative Sunni kingdom out of fear of exposing women to spiritual dangers of carnal lust first appeared in the Arabic newspaper Elaph. According to Elaph: "A festival official said the three Emiratis were taken out on the grounds they are too handsome and that the Commission members feared female visitors could fall for them."

Both Elaph and Sky Dancing Blog reported that Al Gala was at the UAE's pavilion at the Riyad festival when an incident involving a well known UAE female singer, Aryam, led to the feared religious morality police, the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, storming the UAE pavilion and unceremoniously bundling him and his colleagues out of the festival and out of the kingdom entirely!

Sky Dancing Blog confirmed Aryam went to the UAE pavilion but the artiste explained she visited the pavilion as a delegate of the UAE. According to Sky Dancing Blog, Aryam said she was invited by the Abu Dhabi Culture and Tourism Authority.





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Memes and Jokes

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A young businessman had just started his own firm. He rented a beautiful office and had it furnished with antiques. Sitting there, he saw a man come into the outer office. Wishing to appear he's very busy, the businessman picked up the phone and started to pretend he had a big deal working.

He threw huge figures around and made giant commitments. Finally he hung up and asked the visitor, "Can I help you?"

The man said, "Yeah, I've come to activate your phone lines."


_____________________________________

A young woman who was several months pregnant was sitting in a bus.

When she noticed a young man smiling at her she began feeling humiliated on account of her condition.

She changed her seat and he seemed more amused.

She moved again and then on seeing him laughing more. She filed a court case on him.

In the court the man's defence was:-

When the lady boarded the bus I couldn't help noticing she was
pregnant.

She sat under an advertisement, which read "Coming Soon- The unknown boon"..

I was even more amused when she then sat under a shaving
advertisement, which read:- "William's stick did the trick"..

Then I could not control myself any longer, when on the third move she sat under an advertisement, which read:-

"Dunlop Rubber would have prevented this accident"..

The case was dismissed. The judge fell off his chair laughing :'D


______________________________________________

One Day Jane Met Tarzan In The Jungle.

She Was Very Attracted To Him And
During Her Questions About His Life She Asked Him What He Did For Sex.

“ What’s That?” He Asked.

She Explained To Him What Sex Was 
And He Said: “ Oh, I Use A Hole In The Trunk Of A Tree. ”

“ Tarzan, You Have It All Wrong, ” She Says Horrified, “ But I Will Show You How To Do It Properly. ”

She Took Off Her Clothes, Laid Down On The Ground And Spread Her Legs Wide.
“ Here ,” She Said, “ You Must Put It In Here. ”

Tarzan Removed His Loincloth, Stepped Closer And Then Gave Her An Almighty Kick In The Crotch.

Jane Rolled Around In Agony. Eventually She Managed To Gasp, “What The Hell Did You Do That For?”

“ Just Checking For Bees, ” Said Tarzan. ;)




______________________________________________________________








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Monday, 22 April 2013

School Plays Bieber's 'Baby' As Fundraiser: Students Pay To Make It Stop

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A suburban Chicago high school fundraising to save a popular arts center is motivating students to donate with an earsplitting incentive: pay up and they'll stop blasting Justin Bieber's "Baby" during passing periods.
Evanston Township High School seniors Charlotte Runzel and Jesse Chatz convinced school administrators to let them play the popstar's biggest hit over the loudspeakers for one week, or until they'd raised $1,000, the Chicago Sun-Times reports. Within three days, students had coughed up enough cash to silence the Canadian singer's repetitive single.
Between Monday and Wednesday, the pop song, which features tween idol Justin Bieber singing the word "baby" 54 times, played through around 20 times in between classes, NBC Chicago reports. The school reportedly rebuffed student complaints, encouraging ETHS kids to play along and donate money to make the music stop.
Boocoo Cultural Center and Cafe, the high school's nonprofit beneficiary, hosts music classes, live performances and entertainment events, and offers computer labs and recording space to the Evanston community. 
"People who work here ... are just incredibly moved by the fact that these kids came to us and wanted to help out," Boocoo’s administrator Alicia Hempfling told the Sun-Times. She says the coffee shop will use the donations to provide free performance spaces for students to give their senior presentations.



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Friday, 5 April 2013

TOP 10: Most Influential People In History

- 27 comments

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There have been many people in the history who have greatly influenced the human race, some have positively influenced us while others negatively throughout the history. They all had proved to be turning points in the history. Their teachings are still followed today. This list contains 10 such great people who had influenced the   
world positively.

The first person on the list is the Prophet of Islam Muhammad. Muhammad was "supremely successful" in both the religious and secular realms. Also Muhammad's role in the development of Islam was far more influential than Jesus' collaboration in the development of Christianity. The development of Christianity can be attributed to St. Paul, who played a pivotal role in its dissemination.


1. Muhammad

Muhammad the Prophet of Islam


>Time Frame- c. 570-632

>Occupation- Secular and religious leader.

The central human figure of Islam, regarded by Muslims as a prophet of God and the last messenger. Active as a social reformer, diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, military leader, humanitarian, philanthropist.

As his father had died shortly after marriage his grandfather ‘Abd al-Muttalib became his guardian. ‘Abd al-Muttalib was the respected head of the clan of Hashim and the tribe of Quraysh, to which his clan belonged. With the Quraysh being the biggest and most influential tribe in Mecca, ‘Abd al-Muttalib was seen as the master of all of Mecca. The Quraysh had a special status in Mecca because they used to be in charge of the sacred Ka’ba.

The Prophet was only about five to six years old when he lost his mother. Orphan Muhammad then lost his grandfather and custodian ‘Abd al-Muttalib at the age of eight. Now one of ‘Abd al-Muttalib’s sons, Abu Talib, became the guardian of his orphan nephew.


When Muhammad was twenty five years old, he was hired by a woman called Khadija to take her merchandize to Syria. Khadija, a widow fifteen years Muhammad’s senior, later proposed marriage to him, which he agreed to. They lived together for almost a quarter of a century, until the death of Khadija about 8-9 years after the revelation of the Qur’an.

It is interesting to note that Muhammad did not get married to any other woman during Khadija’s life, despite the fact that polygamy was common practice in that society. Living out his youth with only one woman in that highly polygamous environment contradicts Muhammad’s lecherous image in the Western mind.


Muhammad was deeply interested in matters beyond this mundane life. He used to frequent a cave that became known as “Hira‘” on the Mountain of “Nur” (light) for contemplation. The cave itself, which survived the times, gives a very vivid image of Muhammad’s spiritual inclinations. Resting on the top of one of the mountains north of Mecca, the cave is completely isolated from the rest of the world. In fact, it is not easy to find at all even if one knew it existed. After visiting the cave, I found myself concluding that Muhammad must have been divinely guided to that hideaway, even if he had chosen it consciously. Once inside the cave, it is a total isolation. Nothing can be seen other than the clear, beautiful sky above and the many surrounding mountains. Very little of this world can be seen or heard from inside the cave. The inhabitant of that cave was obviously interested in things beyond this world and its material riches.

It was in that cave in 610 CE, i.e. at the age of forty, that Prophet Muhammad received from Allah the first verses of the Qur’an. Then and there, history changed.


2. Isaac Newton

Issac Newton


>Time Frame- 1643-1727

>Occupation- Scientist 

Does this famous personality even needs an introduction? Loved by Science lovers whereas hated by most of the science students Isaac Newton is one of the greatest physicts world has ever come across of(other being Albert Einstein, 10th entry).




Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe near Grantham on 25 December 1642. His father died before he was born and in 1645 his mother marred a clergyman from North Welham in Leicestershire and went to live with him while Isaac Newton lived with his grandmother. When her second husband died in 1656 Isaac’s mother returned to Woolsthorpe and Isaac Newton went to live with her again.

From the age of 12 to 14 Isaac Newton went to Grantham Grammar School. During this time he lodged with an apothecary and his family. Then in 1659 Isaac had to leave to help his mother on the family farm. Isaac Newton was not in the slightest bit interested in running a farm and in 1660 he went to the grammar school again. In 1661 he went to Trinity College Cambridge. Isaac Newton obtained a BA in 1665. In 1666 Isaac Newton was forced to flee Cambridge because of an outbreak of the plague and he returned temporarily to Woolsthorpe. He returned to university in 1667.

In 1667 Isaac Newton was elected a fellow of Trinity College. The same year he was elected a member of the Royal Society. In February 1672 a paper he wrote about light and colours was read to the society. In 1669 Isaac Newton became Lucasian professor of mathematics. In the meantime, in 1668, he invented a reflecting telescope.

Isaac Newton published his masterpiece Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687. It set out his theory of gravity and his laws of motion.

In 1695 Isaac Newton was made Ward of the mint and in 1699 Master of the mint. He resigned his fellowship and professorship at Cambridge in 1701.

In 1703 Isaac Newton became president of the Royal Society. He was knighted in 1705.

Meanwhile in 1704 Isaac Newton published another great work about light.

Isaac Newton died at the age of 84 on 20 March 1727.

So in short- He was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. His law of universal gravitation and three laws of motion laid the groundwork for classical mechanics.

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3. Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ


>Time Frame- 7–2 BC/BCE to 30–36 AD/CE

>Occupation- Spiritual Leader

Jesus (also called Christ which means king or Messiah) was born in Israel 2000 years ago. Modern civilization marks his birth by dividing time B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (Anno Domini - or the year of our Lord). For his first thirty years, Jesus lived a traditional Jewish life, working as a carpenter. During this time, all of Israel was under Caesar's Roman dictatorship, including Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, and Nazareth, where he was raised.

In his thirties, Jesus began his public teaching and display of recorded miracles, yet still never travelled more than 200 miles from his birthplace. Over a three year period, despite his efforts to keep a low profile, Jesus' reputation spread nation wide. The Roman governors and rulers of Israel's provinces and the leaders of the Jewish people (the religious counsels) took note of him. Jesus' key messages included:

  • God loves you and is with you
  • Love one another
  • Immense value of each person
  • Good news: kingdom of God has come to earth
  • Reality of judgment to heaven or hell
  • God forgives those who ask

Many have asked "Who is Jesus Christ?" Jesus' most controversial act was that he repeatedly claimed to be God, which was a direct violation of the Jewish law. Therefore the religious leaders asked the Roman government to execute him. In each of several official trials, the Romans found that he was not guilty of breaking any Roman law. Even the Jewish leaders recognized that other than Jesus' claim to be God, Jesus followed the Jewish law perfectly. Still the religious leaders, using the argument of political disfavor, persuaded Pilate, a Roman governor of the Southern province of Israel, to authorize an execution.

Jesus was brutally tortured and then hung by his hands, which were nailed to a horizontal wooden beam (cross). This method of execution restricted the airflow to his lungs, killing him in three hours. However, according to more than 500 witnesses, Jesus returned from the dead three days later, and over the next 40 days journeyed in both the southern and northern provinces of Israel. To many, this was conclusive proof that Jesus' claims to be God were real. Then Jesus returned to Jerusalem, the city where he was recently executed, and according to witnesses, he left the earth alive by rising up into the sky.

As a result of these miraculous events, the number of his followers increased dramatically. Only a few months later in that same city of Jerusalem one record states that some 3000 new followers were added in a single day. The religious leaders responded by trying to stomp out Jesus' followers. Many of these people chose to die rather than deny their belief that Jesus was truly God.

Within 100 years, people throughout the Roman empire (Asia Minor, Europe) became followers of Jesus. In 325 AD, the following of Jesus, Christianity, became the official religion of the Roman Emperor Constantine. Within 500 years, even Greece's temples of Greek gods were transformed into churches for followers of Jesus. Although some of Jesus' messages and teachings were diluted or miscommunicated through the expansion of a religious institution, Jesus' original words and life still speak loudly for themselves.

4. Buddha

Buddha


>Time Frame- 563-483 BC

>Occupation- Spiritual Leader

Traditional belief is that he was born a prince in Lumbinī, Nepal in the Terai lowlands near the foothills of the Himalayas. However, considerable archeological evidence now shows that he may have been born in Kalinga -- now Orissa in India. In common with many other great religious leaders, many miraculous stories were associated with his birth. He emerged from his mother's side without causing her any pain. The earth shook as he was born. As a newborn, he was miraculously showered with water. He stood up, took seven steps, announced that he would be the "chief of the world." He also stated that this would be his last reincarnation.

He was given the name Siddhãrtha Gautama.  Siddhãrtha means "one who has achieved his aim." Gautama was his clan name. He was sometimes referred to as Śãkyamuni which means "the sage of the Śãkyas." Śãkyamuni was raised as a Hindu. His parents assumed that he would succeed his father later in his life. His parents were concerned about a prophecy that astrologers gave at the time of his birth. They predicted that he would become either a universal monarch or a monk who would be a great religious teacher. His parents raised him in a state of luxury in the hope that he would become attached to earthly things and to pleasure. This would make it less likely that he choose the religious life.


Some sources say that he took four journeys by chariot. Other sources say he had four visions. During the first trip/vision he was deeply disturbed by seeing an elderly, helpless, frail man. On the second, he saw an emaciated and depressed man suffering from an advanced disease. On the third, he spotted a grieving family carrying the corpse of one of their own to a cremation site. He reflected deeply upon the suffering brought about by old age, illness and death. On his fourth trip/vision, he saw a religious mendicant -- a śramaņa -- who led a reclusive life of meditation, and was calm and serene. The four encounters motivated him to follow the path of the mendicant and find a spiritual solution to the problems brought about by human suffering.



He left his wife, child, luxurious lifestyle, and future role as a leader of his people in order to seek truth. It was an accepted practice at the time for some men to leave their family and lead the life of an ascetic.


One night In 535 BCE, at the age of 35, he was seated underneath a large tree -- later known as the Bodhi tree (species Pipal or ficus religiosus). He began to experience some major spiritual breakthroughs:

  • During the first watch of the night, he developed the ability to recall the events of his previous reincarnations in detail.
  • During the second watch, he was able to see how the good and bad deeds that many living entities performed during their lifetimes led to the nature of their subsequent reincarnation into their next life. 
  • During the third watch, he learned that he had progressed beyond "spiritual defilements," craving, desire, hatred, hunger, thirst, exhaustion, fear, doubt, and delusions. He had attained nirvana. He would never again be reincarnated into a future life.

He had attained enlightenment! "He became a savior, deliverer, and redeemer." 

After attaining enlightenment he assumed the title Lord Buddha. For seven days, he puzzled over his future: whether to withdraw from the world and live a life of seclusion, or whether to reenter the world and teach his Middle Way. He decided on the latter course: to proclaim his Dharma (teachings) to other humans so that they could also attain enlightenment.


He located five of his fellow seekers with whom he had earlier fasted, and rejoined them near Benares. They quickly became aware of the changes brought about by his enlightenment. It was to them that he preached his first sermon. It contained the essential teachings of Buddhism. All five accepted his teachings and were ordained as monks. After the Buddha's second sermon, all five achieved enlightenment. They are referred to as Arhants (saints).


He wandered around Northeast India for decades, teaching all who would listen. He had tens of thousands of disciples and accumulated a large public following. He later established an order of monks and a corresponding order of nuns. 



His health began to fail when he was in this late 70s. After forty-five years of teaching, he died in a small town named Kuśinagara, at the age of 80, apparently of natural causes. His final words were: "Decay is inherent in all things. Be sure to strive with clarity of mind" for Nirvana. He did not choose a successor. He felt that the Dharma -- his teachings -- plus the Vinaya -- his code of rules for the monks and nuns -- would be a sufficient guide. 


5. Confucius

Confucius


>Time Frame- 551-479 BC

>Occupation- Philosopher 

Known to the Chinese as Master Kong and to the rest of the world as Confucius, he created a philosophy based on virtue. In turn, he believed honesty, respect, sincerity, and common sense could not only join families, but also bring together the entire empire of China.

Not much is known about Confucius’ early life, but it is believed he belonged to the middle class, and therefore would have been well educated. Being part of the middle class would have also meant he was cultured and looked upon for intellectual soundness. In his mid-20s, Confucius became a government official in the State of Lu and a minister, a lofty position for a young man. He attempted to talk to the king about certain policies that governed Lu, but after doing so for several years, nothing changed. In despair about the fate of the kingdom, Confucius resigned from his post and from the politics of the king. From then on, he believed someone shouldn’t inherit power simply because of birth or lineage. On the contrary, a person should come into power based on his own merit and be representative of the people.

 Confucius began traveling around northern China. He attempted to talk with kings and other rulers about their practices, hoping to right the wrongs and bring a broken land together once again. He knew that if brought the country together, China’s cultural and financial greatness would expand.

During his travels, he met many who became his disciples. While Confucianism isn’t a religion, per se, these disciples did spread his wise words, and neo-Confucianism brought greater religious context to Confucius’ teachings. Confucius came up with the premise of the modern Golden Rule. He said to a king that the greatest teaching of all is to: “Never impose on others what you would not on yourself.” He promoted the balance of social classes, stating roles should be balanced, but respect for a superior should always be recognized. Additionally, he was a proponent of using music to bring people together, knowing kings and commoners alike could share in the joy it brought.

Confucius taught that it was not the satisfaction of the senses in the present moment that would bring true happiness, but well-planned actions and the helping of fellow man which mattered most. He argued that respect should be paid to the dead but focus should not be taken away from working towards a better future. In his life, he wanted to cultivate ideas that would spread throughout China. He talked of modesty, planning, respect, and moral behavior that would not benefit only a few, but the entire empire.

6. Paul of Tarsus

Paul of Tarsus


>Time Frame- 5-67 AD

>Occupation- Christian Apostle

Paul was born in Tarsus in Cilicia in about AD 5. As well as being a Roman citizen, Paul was a Jew who was concerned about the growth of Christianity.

Paul was active in persecuting the Christians and in about AD 36 he was sent to Damascus in Syria to continue this work. On the way to Damascus he claimed he heard the voice of Jesus and was converted to Christianity. Paul then toured the Roman Empire as a Christian missionary.

In AD 58 Paul was arrested by the Roman authorities. As a Roman citizen, Paul had the right to demand that his case should be heard by Emperor Nero. After a period in prison Paul was tried and executed in AD 66. Many of the letters that Paul wrote to early Christian groups have survived and are included in the New Testament. These letters are the earliest Christian literature in existence.

7. Cài Lún

Cai Lun


>Time Frame- 50-121 AD

>Occupation- Political official in Imperial China

Cai Lun was a eunuch who entered the service of the imperial palace in 75 ce and was made chief eunuch under the emperor Hedi (reigned 88–105/106) of the Dong (Eastern) Han dynasty in the year 89. About the year 105 Cai conceived the idea of forming sheets of paper from the macerated bark of trees, hemp waste, old rags, and fishnets. The paper thus obtained was found to be superior in writing quality to cloth made of pure silk (the principal writing surface of the time), as well as being much less expensive to produce and having more abundant sources.

Cai reported his discovery to the emperor, who commended him for it. Important improvements were subsequently made to Cai’s papermaking process by his apprentice, Zuo Bo, and the process was rapidly adopted throughout China, from which it eventually spread to the rest of the world. Cai himself was named a marquess in 114.

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8. Johann Gutenberg

Johann Gutenberg


>Time Frame- 1398-1468

>Occupation- Inventor

Johann Gutenberg, a German goldsmith and printer, is credited with being the first European to use movable type printing. In 1439, he became the global inventor of the mechanical printing press. He also produced the Gutenberg Bible.

Gutenberg is given credit for inventing the first press capable of mass-producing movable type using oil-based ink on wooden printing presses. Gutenberg came up with a printing system that was unique. The process of moveable type printing was actually more complicated than even early historians believed. However complicated, it was a vast improvement over handwriting manuscripts, as was done prior to the invention of the press. European bookmaking was revolutionized and printing innovations would spread rapidly throughout Europe.

Gutenberg's press worked by first hammering a hard metal punch (with the letter carved back to front) into soft metal copper. This makes what is called a mold or matrix. This is then placed into a holder, and cast by filling the mold with hot metal, which cooled down to create a piece of type. The matrix can now be reused to create hundreds of identical letters. Because the letters can be used in any combination the type is called moveable.


9. Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus


>Time Frame- 1451-1506

>Occupation- Explorer

Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa ,Italy. He was the oldest of five children in his family. His father was a wool weaver. He helped his father with the weaving, but he always wanted to sail the seas. He didn't get to go to school very much, but he learned to read and write Spanish during his travels. He also taught himself Latin because all the geography books were written in Latin.

Some people thought he was trying to prove the world was round, but this is not true. Most people already knew the earth was round. He wanted to find a short way to get to the Indies by ship. He was a Christian and wanted to tell the story of Christ to the people he would find in the far-away lands. He also wanted wealth for himself and for Spain, and he wanted to be famous.

He tried for eight years to get King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to supply him with ships and money. Finally they agreed, but he made more demands.  He wanted to be made a knight * , admiral * of the Ocean Sea. He wanted to be the viceroy * and governor * general * of all lands he would discover. Also he wanted one-tenth of everything he found of value in the new lands.

He even boldly told them he wanted all of this in writing. This was rather brave of him because they could have had him killed because of his demands. They finally agreed and he got three ships ready to sail; the Santa Maria and two smaller ships, the Pinta and the Nina. He took enough food for a year. In four months he was ready to sail.

They left Spain on August 3, 1492. They made one stop, then sailed on toward the west. After many days, the sailors were ready to turn around and start back home. 

"Just three more days," he said. "Then if we don't see land, we'll turn around and go back home." Two days later they saw land; an island Columbus named San Salvador. He thought he had found the Indies and called the people he saw there "Indians". When they got to Cuba, he thought he was in China. The world was a lot larger than he thought.

On Christmas Eve, the Santa Maria was wrecked near Haiti. Columbus built a fort and left 40 men to hunt for gold. Then he returned to Spain on the Nina. The Pinta also returned. The people of Spain welcomed him as a hero. He made three more voyages across the ocean. His 13-year-old son, Ferdinand went with him on the fourth voyage. Columbus did not become rich as he had hoped. At the end of his life he only had a pension the king and queen had given him because he was the first to reach the New World. He spent the last few months of his life in bed because of the pain of arthritis. Columbus not only discovered a New World, but he led the way for other explorers.

10. Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein


>Time Frame- 1879-1955

>Occupation- Scientist 

Albert Einstein was born to a middle-class German Jewish family. His parents were concerned that he scarcely talked until the age of three, but he was not so much a backward as a quiet child. He would build tall houses of cards and hated playing soldier. At the age of twelve he was fascinated by a geometry book. 

At the age of fifteen Albert quit high school disgusted by rote learning and martinet teachers, and followed his family to Italy where they had moved their failing electrotechnical business. After half a year of wandering and loafing, he attended a congenial Swiss school. The next year he entered the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.

After working hard in the laboratory but skipping lectures, Einstein graduated with an unexceptional record. For two grim years he could find only odd jobs, but he finally got a post as a patent examiner. He married a former classmate.

Einstein wrote four fundamental papers, all in a few months. The first paper claimed that light must sometimes behave like a stream of particles with discrete energies, "quanta." The second paper offered an experimental test for the theory of heat and proof of the existence of atoms. The third paper addressed a central puzzle for physicists of the day – the connection between electromagnetic theory and ordinary motion – and solved it using the "principle of relativity." The fourth showed that mass and energy are two parts of the same thing, mass-energy (E=mc^2).

Einstein became an assistant professor at the University of Zurich, his first full-time physics job. In 1911 he moved on to the German University of Prague. He continued to publish important physics papers, and was beginning to meet fellow scientists, for example, at the exclusive Solvay Conference. The next year he returned to the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich as Professor. Einstein moved to Berlin, taking a research post that freed him from teaching duties. He separated from his wife and two sons. When the First World War broke out, Einstein rejected Germany's aggressive war aims, supporting the formation of a pacifist group.

After a decade of thought, with entire years spent in blind alleys, Einstein completed his general theory of relativity. Overturning ancient notions of space and time, he reached a new understanding of gravity. Meanwhile he continued to sign petitions for peace. As Germany collapsed, Einstein became more involved in politics and supported a new progressive party. The next year he remarried. And his general theory of relativity received stunning confirmation from British astronomers: as Einstein had predicted, gravity bends starlight. In the popular eye he became a symbol of science and of thought at its highest.

Einstein contributed to the struggling new quantum theory. Meanwhile, he searched for a way to unify the theories of electromagnetism and gravity. In 1929 he announced a unified field theory, but the mathematics could not be compared with experiments; his struggle toward a useful theory had only begun. Meanwhile he argued with his colleagues, challenging their belief that quantum theory can give a complete description of phenomena.

Einstein was asked to become the second President of the State of Israel, but declined. He was supporting many causes, such as the United Nations and world government, nuclear disarmament, and civil liberties. The search for a true unified field theory for a more profound understanding of nature continued to fill Einstein's days. While corresponding about a new anti-war project and writing a speech for Israel, he was stricken and died.

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